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St Ritas College Library

Referencing: Quick Reference Guide

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Artwork

In-text Reference/Citation

Reference List

Artwork in a museum or on a museum website

(da Vinci, c. 1503-1506)

Artist Last Name, First Initial. (Date). Title of artwork in italics [Medium or format of artwork in square brackets]. Museum name, City, Country where artwork is held.

da Vinci, L. (c. 1503-1506). Mona Lisa [Oil on poplar panel].  The Louvre, Paris, France.

Artwork on a museum website

(da Vinci, c. 1503-1506)

 

Artist Last Name, First Initial. (Date). Title of artwork in italics [Medium or format of artwork in square brackets]. Site name. Web address

da Vinci, L. (c. 1503-1506). Mona Lisa – Portrait of Lisa Gherardini, wife of Francesco del Giocondo [Oil on poplar panel].  Louvre. https://www.louvre.fr/en/oeuvre-notices/mona-lisa-portrait-lisa-gherardini-wife-francesco-del-giocondo

Note: For untitled art, include a description in square brackets in place of a title.

Artwork, no author/artist

("Bayeux Tapestry", c. 11th century)

Note: Use double quotation marks around the title when referring to the artwork within the text of your assignment.

Note: If the author is unknown, begin the reference list entry with the title.

Bayeux Tapestry [Embroidered cloth]. (c. 11th century). Bayeux Museum. https://www.bayeuxmuseum.com/en/contact-us/

 

Biblical and Religious Sources

In-text Reference/Citation

Reference List

Scripture

“I have already passed judgment in the name of our Lord Jesus” (1Corinthians 5:3).

Scripture does not require an entry in the reference list.

Catechism of the Catholic Church

Write out the full title in the first instance and indicate the abbreviation [CCC] in square brackets, then use CCC in each subsequent citation.

In the Catechism of the Catholic Church (CCC, 1997) charity is described as "the theological virtue by which we love God above all things for his own sake, and our neighbor as ourselves for the love of God" (para. 1822).

OR

“The theological virtue by which we love God above all things for his own sake, and our neighbor as ourselves for the love of God” (Catechism of the Catholic Church [CCC], 1997, para. 1822).

Note: Do not use the abbreviation CCC in the reference list. Use the full title.

Title in italics (edition). (Year of publication). Site name. Web address

Catechism of the Catholic Church (2nd ed.). (1997). St. Charles

Borromeo Catholic Church.   https://www.scborromeo2.org/catechism-of-the-catholic-church

Please note: Currently only the first edition of the Catechism of the Catholic Church is available on the Vatican website, it is therefore recommended that you access the second edition, as cited above, if using an online version.

Commentaries

According to biblical scholar Henry (1706), “God had said, Let there be light (v. 3), and there was light; but this was, as it were, a chaos of light, scattered and confused: now it was collected and modelled…” (para. 6).

OR

… (Henry, 1706, para. 6).

Author. (Year published). Book title. Publisher.

OR

Author. (Year published). Book title. Site name. Web address

Henry, M. (1706). Matthew Henry's commentary on the whole Bible. Bible Study Tools. https://www.biblestudytools.com/commentaries/matthewhenry-complete/genesis/1.html

Encyclicals

Pope John Paul II (1995) depicts the certainty of future immortality as casting new light on the mystery of suffering and death (section 67).

OR

… (John Paul II, 1995, section 67).

Pope. (Year published). Encyclical title. Publisher.

OR

Pope. (Year published). Encyclical title [Encyclical letter]. Site name. Web address

John Paul II. (1995). Evangelium vitae [Encyclical letter]. The Holy See. 

http://w2.vatican.va/content/john-paul-ii/en/encyclicals/documents/hf_jpii_enc_25031995_evangelium-vitae.html

Note: Do not use the term Pope in the author field of your reference list entry.

Translated religious work, no author

(Nicene Creed, 325/2021)

Note: Within your in-text reference, italicise the title.

Title in italics. (Year of publication). Site name. Web address (Original work published Year)

Nicene Creed. (2021). Loyola Press. 
    https://www.loyolapress.com/catholic-resources/prayer/
    traditional-catholic-prayers/prayers-every-catholic-should-know    
    /nicene-creed/
(Original work published 325)

Note: The title of the religious work should be in italics when it is placed in the author field in the reference list entry.

 

Book

In-text Reference/Citation

Reference List

One or two authors

Note: Use & when referring to multiple authors within parentheses.

“Setting goals has long been acknowledged as the way we achieve progress through life” (Bonsall & Jones, 2014, p.79).

OR

According to Bonsall and Jones (2014) “setting goals has long been acknowledged as the way we achieve progress through life” (p.79).

Author Last Name, First Initial(s) & Author Last Name, First Initial(s). (Year published). Book title in italics. Publisher.

Bonsall, A., & Jones, T. (2014).  Entrepreneurial intelligence: Inspired by the philosophies of coffee entrepreneur Phillip Di Bella. Esstee Media.

Note: Invert author(s) surname and first initial(s).  Use & between multiple authors. Publisher location is no longer needed.

Three to twenty authors

Note: Cite last name of first author followed by et al. for all in-text references.

(Booth et al., 2015)

Author(s) Last Name, First Initial(s) – list all authors, use comma between each author and & before final author. (Year published). Title of book in italics. Publisher.

Booth, W. C., Colomb, G. G., & Williams, J. M. (2008). The craft of research. University of Chicago Press.

Chapter in an edited book

Note: Use the chapter authors NOT the editors of the book.

(Evans, 2008)

Chapter Author(s) Last Name, First Initial(s). (Year published). Title of chapter. In Editor(s) initial(s) and last name (Ed. OR Eds.),Title of book in italics (pp. page numbers). Publisher. DOI or web address (if applicable). 

Evans, R. J. (2008). The emergence of Nazi ideology. In J. Caplan (Ed.), Nazi Germany (pp. 10-30). Oxford University Press.

 

Fiction

In-text Reference/Citation

Reference List

Narrative citation

Rowling positions readers to see that Harry’s courage has been developed through adversity. He “was used to spiders, because the cupboard under the stairs was full of them, and that was where he slept" (p. 13).

 

Note: You may use the author's surname to introduce and incorporate the evidence.

No reference entry is required for a novel for an analytical essay at St Rita's College. 

Parenthetical citation

Early in the novel, readers are positioned to see Harry's courage has been forged through adversity; he "was used to spiders, because the cupboard under the stairs was full of them, and that was where he slept" (p. 13).

 

Note: You do not need to include the author's surname in the citation, as you will have mentioned the author's full name in the introduction and in various other ways throughout the essay.

Punctuation

Question marks and exclamation marks:

Foreshadowing is clearly evident when Ellie says nonchalantly "What's the worst that could happen?" (p. 2). 

Note: Any question marks or exclamation marks from the original text should appear within the quotation marks.

 

Ellipsis

"When things got really bad I could go away inside my head... I would just be gone" (p. 13).

Note: Use an ellipsis to omit parts of the original text to maintain the flow of your sentence.

 

Figures and Tables

A table usually shows numerical values or textual information in columns and rows (row-column structure).

A figure includes items like charts, graphs, photographs, drawings or any other illustration or non-textual depiction.

Tables and figures should not be used merely for decoration; they must serve a purpose in aiding readers’ understanding.

In-text Reference/Citation

Reference List

Figures

Note: Refer to each figure by its number (e.g. Table 1).  Assign the figure numbers in the order in which they are first mentioned in the text.

The note should be placed below the figure and explain the contents of the figure which cannot be understood by the title or image.  Not all figures include figure notes.

Sample Figures

Above the figure:

Figure number (in bold numerals)

Title in italics (capitalise all major words)

Below the figure:

Note (in italics). Explanation to clarify information in the image. From/Adapted from “Title of Article”, by Author first initial. Author surname, Year (web address)

Figure 1

Increasing Social Media Use in Teens, 2012-2018

Infographic: Teens' Social Media Usage Is Drastically Increasing | Statista

Note. From “Teens' Social Media Usage Is Drastically Increasing”, by F. Richter, 2018 (https://www.statista.com/chart/15720/frequency-of-teenagers-social-media-use/)

Figures are referenced in the Reference List as a normal entry for a website, journal, book, etc.

Tables

Note: Refer to each table by its number (e.g. Table 1).  Assign the table numbers in the order in which they are first mentioned in the text. Each table should be given a brief, but explanatory title.

Sample Tables

Each table should include information above and below the table.

Above the table:

Table number (in bold numerals)

Title in italics (capitalise all major words)

Below the table:

Note (in italics). Description. From/Adapted from “Title of Web Document”, by Author first initial. Author Surname, Year (web address)

Table 1

Average Weekly Earnings, Key Figures, Australia, May 2020

Note. Statistics from the Average Weekly Earnings survey, which measured the level of average earnings in Australia. From Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2020 (http://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/mf/6302.0)

Tables are referenced in the Reference List as a normal entry for a website, journal, book, etc.

 

Image/Photograph

In-text Reference/Citation

Reference List

Image from web, with author

Note: Each image should include a caption located beneath the image and justified to the left.

Figure #. Title or description of the image (Abbott, 2020).

Artist/Creator(s) Last Name, First Initial(s) or Screen name. (Year created, Month Day if available). Image title or description [Image Type]. Site name. Web address

Abbott, M. (2020, January 2). A kangaroo rushes past a burning house in Conjola on New Year's Eve [Photograph]. BBC. https://www.bbc.com/news/in-pictures-50971879

Image from web, no author

("Hitler Youth members performing the Nazi salute", 1933)

Image title [Type of work or image description]. (Year created, Month Day if available). Site name. Web address

Hitler Youth members performing the Nazi salute [Photograph]. (1933). EBSCO. http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=ers&AN=89402938&site=eds-live

Note: When the author and the site name are the same, omit the website name from the reference list.

Creative Commons image

Note: Creative Commons images should include a caption below the image.

'Title of the image' by creator/photographer's first and last name or username available at web address under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International

'Visit' by pixpoetry available at https://unsplash.com/photos/Hkw1erBrzwc under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International

Note: At St Rita's, when using a Creative Commons licensed image, you do not need to include an entry in the reference list.

 

 

Interview

Note: For a personal interview that you have conducted, cite it as personal communication

In-text Reference/Citation

Reference List

Note: Refer to the interviewee within the text of your sentence.

According to Martin Luther King's May 8, 1967 interview with NBC's Sander Vancour, after many years of protest, the movement was entering a "new phase" (NBC News, 2018). 

Broadcaster Name. (Year, Month Day). Title of interview or brief description [Video]. Host Site Name. Web address

NBC News. (2018, April 5). MLK talks 'New Phase' of civil rights struggle, 11 months before his assassination [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2xsbt3a7K-8 

Note: Where possible, use a web site which contains the transcript of the interview.

 

Journal Article

In-text Reference/Citation

Reference List

One or two authors

Some people in society are more likely to experience food insecurity and “people suffering illness, frailness or other forms of social isolation may also experience insecurity regardless of their financial means” (Rosier, 2012, p.4).

OR

Rosier (2012) suggests “people suffering illness, frailness or other forms of social isolation may also experience insecurity regardless of their financial means” (p.4).

Author Last Name, First Initial(s) & Author Last Name, First Initial(s). (Year published). Article title. Journal title, Volume(Issue), page number(s) xx-xx. DOI or web address if available

Rosier, K. (2012). Food insecurity in Australia: What is it, who experiences it and how can child and family services support families experiencing it? Journal of the Home Economics Institute of Australia, 19(1), 25-30. http://search.informit.com.au/ browseJournalTitle;res=IELIND;issn=1322-9974    

Note: The journal volume should be in italics but the issue should not be in italics.

Three to twenty authors

Note: Cite last name of first author followed by et al. for all in-text references.

(Curtis et al., 2020)

Author(s) Last Name, First Initial(s) – list all authors, use comma between each author and & before final author. (Year published). Article title. Journal title, Volume(Issue), page number(s) xx-xx. DOI or web address if available

Curtis, R. G., Ryan, J. C., Edney, S. M. & Maher, C. A. (2020). Can Instagram be used to deliver an evidence-based exercise program for young women? A process evaluation. BMC Public Health20(1), 1–9. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-020-09563-y

Journal article with article number not page numbers

As above

Author(s) Last Name, First Initial(s). (Year published). Article title. Journal title, Volume(Issue), Article e. DOI or web address if available

Yang, B., Wang, J., Tang, B., Lui, Y., Guo, C., Yang, P., Yu, T., Li, R., Zhao, J., Zhang, L., Dai, Y., & Li, N. (2011). Characterization of bioactive recombinant human lysozyme expressed in milk of clones transgenic cattle. PLoS ONE, 6(3), Article e17593. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0017593

Letter

  In-text reference/Citation Reference List
  

(Artist Surname, Year)

(Hoover, 1932)

Author's Last Name, First Initial(s). (Year published, Month and Day if provided). [Brief description of letter]. Website or Archive name. Web address

Hoover, H. (1932, May 21). [Letter from President Herbert Hoover to Herbert S. Crocker]. National Archives. https://catalog.archives.gov/id/26465637

Newspaper Article

In-text Reference/Citation

Reference List

Newspaper Article

Consumers are acutely aware of the environmental impact of plastic bags, which has led to a steep decline in their use (Cormack, 2017).

Note: Month and day are not included in the in-text reference.

Author(s) Last Name, First Initial(s). (Year published, Month Day). Title of article. Name of newspaper in italics, page number if available. Web address if available

Cormack, L. (2017, July 25). Premier bins hopes for state ban on plastic bags. The Sydney Morning Herald, p. 11.

Newspaper Article, no author

If the author is not named, use double quotation marks around the title in the in-text citation.

(“TV may show landing on moon”, 1969)

Note: Month and day are not included in the in-text reference.

Title. (Year published, Month Day). Name of Newspaper in italics, page number(s) if available. Web address if available

TV may show landing on moon. (1969, May 15). The Canberra Times, p. 19. https://trove.nla.gov.au/newspaper/article/131784594?searchTerm=moon%20landing

Online news

The newly discovered popa langur primate, which lives in Myanmar, has already been listed as critically endangered (Power, 2020).

Note: Month and day are not included in the in-text reference.

Author Last Name, First Initial(s). (Year published, Month Day). Title of article in italics. Name of news website. Web address

Power, J. (2020, November 16). Newly identified species of monkey already facing extinction. Brisbane Times. https://www.brisbanetimes.com.au/environment/conservation/just-described-a-super-cute-monkey-is-already-facing-extinction-20201116-p56ewl.html

 

Personal Communication / PowerPoint slide

If a source cannot be recovered by readers, the work is cited as personal communication; including, personal interviews, PowerPoint presentations, emails/text messages, telephone conversations, live speeches, and classroom lectures.  It is preferable to find the research that the lecture was based on rather than use personal communication, where possible.

In-text Reference/Citation

Reference List

Unpublished interview or personal survey

Note: If the interview is confidential you must not reveal their identity; instead use a pseudonym or other descriptor.

(Interviewee’s First Initial. Last name, personal communication, Month day, Year).

(S. Smith, personal communication, July 16, 2020).

Personal communication does not require an entry in the reference list, as it is not retrievable.

Class notes including PowerPoint slides

(Teacher/Presenter’s First Initial. Last name, personal communication, Month day, Year).

(J. Jones, personal communication, May 9, 2020).

Personal communication does not require an entry in the reference list, as it is not retrievable.

 

Political Cartoon

  In-text reference/Citation Reference List
              

(Artist Surname, Year)

(Block, 1950)

Artist last name, Artist First Initial(s). (Year, Month, Day). Title of cartoon. [Cartoon]. Publication name in italics. Web address

Block, H. L. (1950, March 29). You mean I'm supposed to stand on that? [Cartoon]. Washington Post. https://www.loc.gov/exhibits/herblock/naughty-naughty.html#obj3

Primary Source 

The information below refers to historical primary sources which are text based. For primary source artwork, see here.

If the primary source has a known author, use the relevant text type to help you determine the reference format.

  In-text Reference/Citation Reference List
No author / unknown author(s)

Note: Use double quotation marks around the title to indicate that the work's author is unknown.

Where possible, refer to the source within the text of your sentence so that the you won't need to use the quotation marks in brackets.

("Document title or brief description", Year)

("Magna Carta", 1215)

If the author is unknown or cannot be determined, move the title of the work to the author position in the reference list entry (before the date of publication).

Title. (Date, Month Day if available). Website
    name. Web address

Magna Carta. (1215). British Library. 
    https://www.bl.uk/learning/timeline/item95692.html

Known author

If the author is known, then reference the source as you would normally. E.g. as an image, speech, letter, article, report, etc.

(Author or creator's surname, Year)

If the author is known, then reference the source as you would normally.

 

Radio Broadcast

In-text Reference/Citation

Reference List

(Announcer's last name, Year).

Dr Jonathan King implies journalists present at Gallipoli, including Charles Bean, are in large part responsible for romanticising the landing (Hall, 2015).

Announcer's last name, First initial(s). (Year, Month Day). Title of the story [Radio broadcast transcript]. Host site. Web address

Hall, E. (2015, January 14). The diggers that wanted Gallipoli remembered but not glorified [Radio broadcast transcript]. ABC. https://www.abc.net.au/pm/content/2015/s4162359.htm

 

Secondary Source (Indirect Citation)

If you want to use a source which has been cited in another published source (where you have not read or accessed the original author’s work), this is called an indirect citation or secondary source.

In-text Reference/Citation

Reference List

Note: In the text, identify the primary source and write “as cited in” the secondary source that you used.

Surname of author of primary source and year if known quote or paraphrase (as cited in Surname of Author of secondary source, Year).​

OR

(Primary source author's surname, year if known, as cited in secondary source author's surname, year)

According to Philip Gibbs' account in 1934, Hitler’s public announcements had little impact on the German public (as cited in Hite & Hinton, 2003).​

OR

(Gibbs, 1934, as cited in Hite & Hinton, 2003)

Only cite the secondary source (the source you read) in your reference list. Use the relevant format.

For more information about how to use secondary sources, watch this video.

 

Speech

  In-text reference/citation Reference List
Transcript

Note: Provide both years, separated with a slash, the earlier year first

(King, 1963/2020)

Note: Where possible, reference the speech transcript.

Speaker last name, Speaker first initial(s). (Year, Month Date). Title of speech in italics [Speech transcript]. Host site name. Web address (Original work published year) 

King, M. L. (2020). I have a dream [Speech transcript]. American Rhetoric. https://www.americanrhetoric.com/speeches/mlkihaveadream.htm (Original work published 1963)

Audio file

(King, 1963)

Speaker last name, Speaker first initial(s). (Year, Month Date). Title of speech in italics [Speech audio recording]. Host site name. Web address

King, M. L., Jr. (1963, August 28). I have a dream [Speech audio recording]. American Rhetoric. https://www.americanrhetoric.com/speeches/mlkihaveadream.htm

Video (YouTube and DVD)

In-text Reference/Citation

Reference List

YouTube or other video sharing community

Note: Use the author surname(s) for in-text referencing.

(Arioli, 2018)

Author(s) Last Name First Initial(s) or group name [Username]. (Year created, Month Day). Title of video [Video]. YouTube or similar Site name. Web address

Arioli, N. [Two Ghosts]. (2018, November 14). Coin Operated - Animated Short Film [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5L4DQfVIcdg

Note: The person or group who uploaded the video is credited as the author, even if they did not create the video.

Film or movie (e.g. DVD)

Note: Use the director's (or similar) surname for in-text referencing.

Director(s) or similar e.g. Executive Producer (Director or similar descriptor e.g. Producer). (Year). Title of film or movie in italics [Film]. Production Company. Web address if available

Stanton, A. (Director). (2008). Wall-E [Film]. Pixar Animation Studios.

 

Webpage

 

In-text Reference/Citation

Reference List

“Mummification can be found on every continent of the world, but the process itself is inextricably linked with the culture of ancient Egypt” (Fletcher, 2011, para. 2).

Author(s) Last Name, First Initial(s). (Year created, Month Day if available). Title of page italicised. Site name. Web address

Fletcher, J. (2011, February 17). Ancient history in depth: Mummies around the world. BBC. http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/ancient/egyptians/mummies_01.shtml 

 

Notes: When the author and the site name are the same, omit the site name from the reference list.

If there is no date on the website, use n.d. (which means ‘no date’) for your in-text references and reference list.

Two authors   

The following example has been paraphrased:

The vast majority of Australia's native plant life has adapted to the threat and occurrence of fire in order to regenerate and thrive rather than perish in the harsh climatic conditions (Leonard & Kachel, 2019, para. 1).

OR 

According to Leonard and Kachel (2019), Australia's native plant life has adapted over time to respond to the occurrence of fire (para. 1).

Note: Science assessment requires you to paraphrase (explain in your own words).  You are not permitted to use direct quotes in science.

Author's Last Name, First Initial(s) & Author's Last Name, First Inital(s). (Year created, Month Day if available). Title of page italicised. Site name. Web address

 

Notes: Use & for multiple authors.

 

Leonard, J. & Kachel, N. (2019, December 16). Extinguishing bushfire myths 
    and misconceptions.
CSIROscope. 
    https://blog.csiro.au/extinguishing-bushfire-misconceptions/ 

Reference List Formatting Rules

· Always begin your reference list on a new page in the document.

· Order the reference list entries alphabetically by author.

· Use a hanging indent for each entry.  This means that the first line of each entry should start flush with the left margin and the second and any subsequent lines should be indented 1.3cm.  Use the paragraph formatting function to help you create the hanging indent (or use the ruler at the top of the program).

Other Source Types

If the source type you need to reference is not listed here, please ask the friendly St Rita's librarians for assistance by clicking here.

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